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Enable this section if you have TMC26X motor drivers. You’ll need to import the TMC26XStepper library into the Arduino IDE. See the Configuration_adv.h file for the full set of sub-options.

Enable this option for SilentStepStick Trinamic TMC2130 SPI-configurable stepper drivers. You’ll also need the TMC2130Stepper Arduino library. See the Configuration_adv.h file for the full set of sub-options.

To use TMC2130 stepper drivers in SPI mode connect your SPI2130 pins to the hardware SPI interface on your board and define the required CS pins in your pins_MYBOARD.h file. (e.g., RAMPS 1.4 uses AUX3 pins X_CS_PIN 53 , Y_CS_PIN 49 , etc.).

Enable this section if you have L6470 motor drivers. You need to import the L6470 library into the Arduino IDE for this. See the Configuration_adv.h file for the full set of sub-options.

This feature can be used to talk to slave devices on the i2c bus, passing data back to the host. With additional work the TWIBus class can be used to build a full protocol and add remote control features to Marlin, distributing load over two or more boards.

Enable for Spindle and Laser control. Adds the M3 , M4 , and M5 commands to turn the spindle/laser on and off, and to set spindle speed, spindle direction, and laser power.

SuperPid is a router/spindle speed controller used in the CNC milling community. Marlin can be used to turn the spindle on and off. It can also be used to set the spindle speed from 5,000 to 30,000 RPM.

You’ll need to select a pin for the ON/OFF function and optionally choose a 0-5V hardware PWM pin for the speed control and a pin for the rotation direction.

See the Laser and Spindle page for more details.

Enable to add support for a filament width sensor such as Super Skinny Suit Trousers In Burgundy Floral Print Sateen Burgundy Asos XxcGw
. With a filament sensor installed, Marlin can adjust the flow rate according to the measured filament width. Adjust the sub-options below according to your setup.

Only a single extruder is supported at this time.

Only one extruder can have a filament sensor. Specify here which extruder has it.

Distance from the filament width sensor to the melt chamber.

The range of your filament width. Set these according to your filament preferences. The sample values here apply to 3mm. For 1.75mm you’ll use a range more like 1.60 to 1.90.

This defines the size of the buffer to allocate for use with MEASUREMENT_DELAY_CM . The value must be greater than or equal to MEASUREMENT_DELAY_CM . Keep this setting low to reduce RAM usage.

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Hi folks! It’s been some time since my last article, I promise I’ll be more active!:)

Actually I’ve been pretty busy reviewing projects and helping devs structuring their apps, and what I saw most of the times is this: Angular gives you lots of features out of the box, which is why you probably chose it, but it appears that most devs are not taking full advantage of them. The features I’m talking about are Dependency Injection and Observables , but in this article I’ll be focusing only on Dependency Injection.

DI is not just an ‘add-on’ of the framework, it’s a built-in mechanism which powers Angular’s most useful features and there’s nothing that prevents you from exploring every single possibility it offers!

If we had to give DI a description, it is a pattern which lets you inject services (classes) into components without creating them manually and passing them through a constructor. Who provides the right services? Angular of course! And the mechanism is dictated by the way you compose your modules, I wrote an article about that .

That’s cool! But take a breath and think: what is a dependency?

A dependency is needed by in order to work properly. Most of the times a dependency is a service, but it could be something else. In fact, a component can have a dependency on Classes, Values or Objects. Let’s see the tools we have and how useful they are in our apps!

1) useClass

Remember that when you use the class name to specify a provider, Angular takes it and interprets it this way:

What this means is that we can take a class, even a blank one, and change it with another one:

This is pretty useful for mocking services during development, and it can be used to introduce a new service keeping the old class-name as well for compatibility reasons.

2) useValue

useValue is useful when you don’t want to provide a class, but a value (or an object!). Remember that a dependency is something that’s needed by something else, and a component could require an object! This is an awesome feature and we’ll discuss this later, for now just notice this: the base class we provide is overwritten by the object, therefore it’s useless.

It would be better to provide a string name, instead of an useless class, this way:

But again, this approach can lead to name collisions, and as always, there’s a better way that we’ll cover in a while!;)

3) useFactory

useFactory does what it says: it uses a factory (a simple function) and Angular provides the returned value of that function. This is useful when you have to do some checks or some operations before knowing what to provide.

Again, we’re using a string to identify the provider, it’s time to solve this.

4) InjectionToken

Now we’re facing the issue of providing string names AND providing classes that will be overwritten (and are, therefore, useless). What can we do?

Angular gives us InjectionToken (previously OpaqueToken, with some differences) which does exactly what it says: it creates a token (a name) to use in our provide field, instead of using strings or classes. Since every instance of InjectionToken is different, we don’t have to worry about naming collisions, even if we specify the same value at initialization phase.

Remember that those values are simple descriptions, they do nothing to our logic. So now we can use that token both in the module and the component, awesome!

5) Configuring a module fromoutside

This is where I wanted to end. You can use Dependency Injection to inject a configuration object into your modules , which you can use to configure your services! Sounds confusing? Let’s make an example.

Imagine we have a service which talks to an API, let’s say… , for example! It’s the most famous Headless CMS which lets you build your own custom models (city, person, employee, etc…), a sort of WordPress without templates. Since your data will only be accessible through the API, the team released some SDKs to facilitate the process of making the calls. Let’s make a service which uses this SDK (a really simple library) and let’s put this service into its own module, .

Beautiful! Now, the SDK needs to know our Space ID (our work area) and our Access Token in order to work. Let’s save them somewhere, shall we? Why don’t we create a file with an object in our module to st —

This is what you should NOT do if you want to create a reusable module. You’re making a useful module which can be reused across other apps, and if your module grows enough you could even think about publishing it to npm. It wouldn’t be nice to write on the GitHub page:

Ouch. What a bad idea. Your module needs to be configured from the outside! And if you read my previous article, you might have an idea on how to do that.


Yes! You probably already know that RouterModule uses a custom method in order to provide our configuration to the router: our Routes! They are in fact configuration objects!:) Let’s copy the approach.

So, here’s what to do:

That’s awesome! Now let’s dig into our and ask for that object into the constructor, as we always do with services, but with a different syntax:

Voilà! Now you have a [not really] awesome reusable module which can be configured from the outside!

I made for you a working example, you just need to replace the Space ID and the Access Token with your own (in AppModule ) and ask for one of your content types in AppComponent (in my case it was ‘’):

Thank you for reading, see you soon! 😃


Our other speciation metrics support the above assertions: experiments with natural selection led to clusters that were significantly more discrete, in terms of both compactness and separation (genomic distance and the Davies-Bouldin index), than random clusters, whereas experiments without natural selection did not ( Fig 7 , see section 3–1 in S1 Materials for more details). Furthermore, we found no difference in these properties between the Selection, Enforced Reproductive Isolation and Low Dispersal experiment, which involves a pre-defined extrinsic mating rule based on genetic distance, and the Selection and Low Dispersal experiment (one-way ANOVA for all considered time steps, P = 0.6) and the Selection and High Dispersal experiment (one-way ANOVA for all considered time steps, P = 0.4) ( Fig 7 ) where individuals make free reproductive decisions. This important result reveals the emergence of genetic clusters in the absence of extrinsic (postzygotic) barriers to gene flow but in the presence of natural selection (section 3–1 in S1 Materials ).

Fig 7. Evaluation of the compactness and separation of clusters.

Mean and standard deviation (error bars) of the distance of the farthest individual from its cluster’s genetic centre ( A ), the distance between the genetic centers of all pairs of clusters ( B ) and the Davies-Bouldin index ( C ) for the five experiments. For ( A ) and ( C ) the lower the value the more compact the cluster and the more it is separated from other clusters. For each experiment, the values are given for a global k-means clustering algorithm (blue), the species-clusters generated by the simulation (red) and random clusters (green) (* P <0.05).

If the clusters uncovered in our simulations, which correspond to the genotypic cluster concept, also correspond to the biological species concept, then reproductive barriers should be evident between them. We tested for this possibility by quantifying and averaging the rate of hybrid production ( Fig 8A ) and the fitness of hybrids ( Embellished earrings Gucci lrEmJybuc
) measured every 100 time steps. In the experiments with natural selection, hybridization rate decreased to about 25% after 10,000 generations (i.e., once the number of individuals per species has stabilized, see Fig 5 ). On average of all cluster species, about 90% of all hybridization events occurred during the first 100 time steps, after two genetic clusters split–that is, hybridization was subsequently uncommon.

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